对于大多数初次接触真空电镀工艺的客户来说，真空电镀加工的制程损耗率一直是心理一道不容易逾越的坎，很多新客户一听到厂家报出15%-20%的损耗率时第一反应就会觉得有些偏高；真空电镀行业到底需要多少的损耗率呢？今天就从真空镀工艺制程的角度来简单谈一谈损耗的问题，希望能对刚接触真空镀行业的客户起到答疑释惑的作用。从所周知，水电镀行业的损耗率通常是5%-8%左右，因此在实际合作洽谈过程中，经常有客户拿水电镀的损耗率来与真空电镀工艺损耗率来对比，殊不知，水电镀和真空电镀虽然同属于表面电镀加工行业，但工艺却完全截然不同，水电镀加工是一种比较传统的表面电镀加工工艺，其原理是通过化学液体的浸泡、以化学置换的方式达到在塑胶表面添加金属膜层增强外观件金属质感的的目的，由于工艺原理所限，水电镀加工的产品在环保、颜色丰富度、信赖性、信号穿透率、光穿透率、局部蔽镀等方面有着天然的缺陷，很多要求较高的电子行业产品因上述原因而最终不得不更改最初的设计方案放弃表面水电镀加工；真空电镀工艺随之应运而生，相比于水电镀的化学置换工艺，真空电镀采用纯物理的真空蒸发镀膜方式将金属材料在气态蒸发状态下均匀吸附到塑胶件的表面，并在冷却后形成完整的金属膜层，完美解决了上述水电镀加工的众多弊端，加上真空电镀加工工艺在ROHS及环境友好等方面的卓越表现，已经越来越被众多的资深设计研发人员采用，广泛的应用于各行各业需要用金属质感提升产品档次的外观件产品中。真空电镀加工损耗率（scrap rate，SR）：顾名思义，就是指塑胶素材在经过真空镀膜工艺加工成电镀成品的过程中，达不到顾客品质要求的半成品及成品不良所占的比率，即“总不良率”，损耗率=工艺不良总数÷投产总数计算得出。真空蒸发电镀工艺具有一定的特殊性，主要加工工艺流程大致由以下几部分组成：素材进厂—组装夹具—喷涂透明UV底漆—涂料固化---真空镀膜---喷涂UV面漆—涂料固化—下线撤除夹具—全检包装出货；在电镀过程中，根据工艺本身的要求及客户的信赖性测试要求的不同，除镀膜层之外，往往需要二至三次的UV涂料喷涂动作，UV涂料又叫紫外线光固化涂料，这种涂料在液态雾化状态喷涂到产品表面后需要在特殊的紫外灯管发光照射下才能达到彻底的干燥固化状态，且UV涂料一旦固化就形成的永久的分子链结构，不可以再在原涂层上进行返工打磨或脱漆重喷，外观不良品唯一的处理方法往往是直接选别出来报废。真空电镀的UV涂料虽与传统UV涂料略有性能差别，但喷涂工艺与传统的UV涂装工艺为同一原理，传统的UV涂装加工行业一次喷涂加工良率水平大概在80-85%左右已经比较理想了，真空电镀工艺因包含二至三次的UV喷涂工序，按传统UV喷涂的良率水平计算：1×85%×85%×85%=61.4%，也就是说，含三次UV喷涂工序的真空电镀加工工艺的最终加工良品率如果达到61.4%，那么每次UV喷涂的良率已经达到了传统UV喷涂的良率平均水平--85%，此时的损耗率是1-61.4%=38.6%，这样的损耗率显然是绝大多数客户难以接受的；因此，真空电镀行业的单一UV喷涂工序良品率必须要高于传统UV喷涂行业的85%良率水平，否则因工序的叠加效应，会造成相当大的素材成本浪费，这对于顾客对于加工厂家来说都是不利的。经过无数真空电镀行业专业技术人员的钻研和攻坚，从环境净化、除尘、工艺优化等方面不断尝试不停的改进，目前真空电镀加工行业单一UV喷涂工序的良品率已经可以达到90%以上了，在不计算镀膜过程及其他过程损耗的情况下，按一般的两涂UV真空电镀的工艺来算，成品直通率为：1×90%×90%=81%，损耗率为19%，如果再回过头算上镀膜工序的正常损耗率1%-2%、素材检查试镀损耗、各工序首件损耗、性能测试品损耗、客户备品损耗、加工过程掉线损耗等等， 25%的真空电镀加工损耗率是比较科学且合情合理的。一般而言，真空电镀行业现有通行的损耗率标准通常为20%-25%，大尺寸件、结构复杂件损耗率稍高，一般可能达到30%-35%；小尺寸件、外观面小的部件经过不断的工艺优化改善，理想状况下工艺损耗率也可能下降到15%-10%，而这对于真空电镀行业而言已经是相当了不起的成品直通率了。除上述之外，真空电镀工艺的损耗率还与以下六个方面综合相关：1. 产品形状复杂程度；产品形状越复杂，擦拭除尘和静电风枪除尘的难度就越大，除尘效果会相对变差，从而导致最终不良率的上升，损耗率上升；2. 产品外形尺寸的大小；产品外形尺寸越大，则外观面积就越大，相对应的发生外观不良的机率也会越高，损耗率会高；3. 产品的成品外观验收标准；电镀成品的外观验收标准越严格，真空电镀的良品率就会越低，对应的损耗率也就越高，因此合理的品质要求对真空电镀加工的良品率、损耗率的影响非常重要；4. 产品的成品信赖性验收标准；电镀成品的信赖性测试要求越高，为了满足测试要求，通常会增加工序的数量或难度，这也会导致整个真空镀膜工艺综合损耗率的升高；5. 电镀夹具的匹配状况；电镀夹具直接影响到制程的良品率，夹具不合理时，对真空电镀加工工艺的良品率影响非常大，损耗率会变高；6. 员工对产品的熟练程度；同样一款产品，第一次接触或者试产时，其良品率往往不可能达到理想状态，而经过多次量产的探索总结和改善优化后，产品的真空电镀加工良品率会有很明显的提升；综上所述，真空电镀加工加工工艺的制程损耗率是受各方面因素综合叠加影响的结果，需要从源头就重视产品的可量产性，产品设计开发、品质标准制定、夹具设计、最小采购量等等因素都会影响到电镀加工厂家的制程良品率，提升良品率、降低损耗率是制造业上下游从业人员永恒的追求，让我们一起努力、共同进步！
For most customers who are first exposed to vacuum electroplating process, the loss rate of vacuum electroplating process has always been a psychological obstacle that cannot be easily overcome. Many new customers will feel a little high when they hear the 15% to 20% loss rate reported by the manufacturer. How much loss rate does vacuum electroplating industry need after all? Today from the perspective of vacuum plating process to briefly talk about the loss of the problem, hope to contact with the vacuum plating industry customers play a role in answering questions. Water have been known to wrest the attrition rate of plating industry is usually about 5% - 8%, therefore in the process of practical cooperation to negotiate, often have the customer take water plating the attrition rate of attrition rate to compare with the vacuum plating process, little imagine, electroplating and vacuum plating although both belong to the water surface electroplating processing industry, but the process is completely different, water is a more traditional electroplating processing surface electroplating processing technology, the principle of which is through chemical liquid soak, achieve in plastic surface in the form of chemical replacement add metal film layer to enhance the purpose of a metallic appearance, due to the limitation of process principle, Water electroplating products in environmental protection, color richness, reliability, signal penetration, light penetration, local cover plating and other aspects of natural defects, many demanding electronic industry products due to the above reasons and finally had to change the original design to give up the surface water electroplating processing; Vacuum plating technology arises at the historic moment, and then compared with water electroplating chemical displacement process, vacuum plating adopts pure physical way of vacuum evaporation coating to metal materials evaporation in the gaseous state uniform adsorption onto the surface of the plastic parts, and form a complete metal film layer after cooling, the perfect solved many disadvantages of the above water electroplating processing, combined with vacuum plating process in ROHS and environmental friendly aspects of excellence, has been more and more adopted by many senior design research and development personnel, widely used in all walks of life to improve the appearance of the products with metallic product. Vacuum plating processing attrition rate (scrap rate, SR) : as the name implies, is refers to the plastic material after vacuum coating process is processed into finished product in the process of electroplating, not meet customer quality requirement of semi-finished products and finished products of bad ratio, namely the total defective rate, attrition rate = calculated total bad present production process. Vacuum evaporation electroplating process has a certain particularity, the main processing process is roughly composed of the following parts: material into the factory -- assembly fixture -- spraying transparent UV primer -- coating curing -- vacuum coating film -- spraying UV finish paint -- coating curing -- rolling off the line to remove fixture -- full inspection packaging shipment; In electroplating process, according to the requirement of the process itself and the reliability test requirements of our clients, in addition to coating layer, often require two to three times the action, the application of UV coating UV coatings and UV curing coating, the coating on the surface state of liquid atomization spray to the product after need under special UV lamp light irradiation to achieve thorough drying curing condition, and once the UV coating curing to form permanent molecular chain structure, can't again on the original coating rework polishing spray or paint, often look bad for the only processing method is sorting out scrap directly. Vacuum plating UV coating is difference with traditional UV coating performance slightly, but the spraying process and the traditional principle of the UV coating process for the same traditional UV coating processing industry a spraying processing yield levels in about 80-85% is ideal vacuum plating process for contains two to three times the UV coating process, according to the traditional UV spraying the yield level of computing: 1×85%×85%×85%=61.4%, that is to say, if the final processing yield of vacuum electroplating process with three UV spraying processes reaches 61.4%, then the yield of each UV spraying has reached the average yield of traditional UV spraying --85%, and the loss rate is 1-61.4%=38.6%, which is obviously unacceptable to most customers. Therefore, the quality rate of a single UV spraying process in vacuum electroplating industry must be higher than the 85% yield level of traditional UV spraying industry, otherwise due to the superposition effect of the process, it will cause considerable material cost waste, which is unfavorable for customers and processing manufacturers. After numerous drilling and crucial vacuum plating industry professional and technical personnel, from the aspects of environmental purification, dust removal, process optimization for continuous improvement, try to keep the single UV spraying process of vacuum plating processing industry rate can achieve 90% above, without computing coating process and other loss situation, according to the general two UV vacuum plating coating, finished rty to: 1×90%×90%=81%, and the loss rate is 19%. If the normal loss rate of coating process is calculated again, such as 1%-2%, material test loss, first piece loss of each process, performance test loss, customer spare parts loss, and loss of line drop during processing, the loss rate of vacuum electroplating process of 25% is relatively scientific and reasonable. Generally speaking, the current standard of vacuum electroplating industry is 20%-25%, and the loss rate of large-size and complex parts is slightly higher, which may reach 30%-35%. After continuous process optimization and improvement of small size parts and small appearance parts, the process loss rate may be reduced to 15%-10% under ideal conditions, which is already quite remarkable for the vacuum electroplating industry. In addition to the above, the loss rate of vacuum electroplating process is also comprehensively related to the following six aspects: 1. The more complex the product shape, the more difficult it is to wipe and dust removal and the electrostatic air gun dust removal. The dust removal effect will be relatively poor, which will lead to the rise of the final defective rate and the rise of the loss rate. 2. The overall size of the product; The larger the size of the product, the larger the surface area, the higher the corresponding probability of appearance defects will be, the higher the loss rate will be; 3. Product appearance acceptance standards; The more strict the appearance acceptance standard of electroplating finished products, the lower the quality rate of vacuum electroplating will be, and the higher the corresponding loss rate will be. Therefore, the influence of reasonable quality requirements on the quality rate and loss rate of vacuum electroplating processing is very important. 4. Product reliability acceptance standards; The higher the requirement of reliability test for electroplating finished products, the more difficult the process is, and the higher the comprehensive loss rate of the whole vacuum coating process will be. 5. Matching status of electroplating fixture; Electroplating fixture directly affects the yield of the manufacturing process. If the fixture is not reasonable, it will have a great influence on the yield of vacuum electroplating process, and the loss rate will be high. 6. Employees' proficiency in products; In the first contact or trial production of the same product, the yield is often unable to reach the ideal state. However, after repeated exploration, summary, improvement and optimization of mass production, the yield of vacuum electroplating processing of the product will be significantly improved. To sum up, vacuum plating processing and processing technology of process attrition rate is influenced by various aspects comprehensive superposition, the result of the need to source from value products can production, product design and development, quality standards, fixture design, minimum purchase quantity, and so on factors will affect the yield of plating processing factory production processes, improve product rate, reduce the attrition rate is permanent pursuit of upstream and downstream manufacturing professionals, let's work hard and make progress together!